RSpec mocks and stubs in plain English

by Jason Swett,

One of the most common questions I see from beginners to Rails testing is what mocks and stubs are and when to use them. If you’re confused about mocks and stubs, you’re not alone. In my experience very few people understand them. In this post I’ll attempt to help clarify the matter, particularly in the context of Rails/RSpec.

I want to preface my explanation with a disclaimer. This post is partly derived from personal experience but it’s mostly derived from me just reading a bunch of posts online and reading a few books to try to understand mocks and stubs better. It’s entirely possible that what follows is not 100% accurate. But I’m risking the inaccuracy because I think the internet needs a clear, simple explanation of mocks and stubs and so far I haven’t been able to find one.

Here’s what we’re going to cover in this post:

The problem with testing terminology

The field of automated testing has about a million different terms and there’s not a complete consensus on what they all mean. For example, are end-to-end tests and acceptance tests the same thing? Some people would say yes, some would say no, and there’s no central authority to say who’s right and who’s wrong. That’s a problem with testing terminology in general.

A problem with mocks and stubs in particular is that programmers are often sloppy with the language. People say mock when they mean stub and vice versa.

The result of these two issues is that many explanations of mocks and stubs are very very very confusing.

Test doubles

I had a lightbulb moment when I read in Gerard Meszaros’ xUnit Test Patterns that mocks and stubs are each special types of test doubles.

To me this was a valuable piece of truth. Mocks and stubs are both types of test doubles. I can understand that. That’s a piece of knowledge that’s not likely to be invalidated by something else I’ll read later. My understanding has permanently advanced a little bit.

What’s a test double? The book xUnit Test Patterns (which I understand actually coined the term “test double”) likens a test double to a Hollywood stunt double. From the book’s online explanation of test doubles:

When the movie industry wants to film something that is potentially risky or dangerous for the leading actor to carry out, they hire a “stunt double” to take the place of the actor in the scene. The stunt double is a highly trained individual who is capable of meeting the specific requirements of the scene. They may not be able to act, but they know how to fall from great heights, crash a car, or whatever the scene calls for. How closely the stunt double needs to resemble the actor depends on the nature of the scene. Usually, things can be arranged such that someone who vaguely resembles the actor in stature can take their place.

The example I use later in this post is the example of a payment gateway. When we’re testing some code that interacts with a payment gateway, we of course don’t want our test code to actually hit e.g. the production Stripe API and charge people’s credit cards. We want to use a test double in place of the real payment gateway. The production Stripe API is like Tom Cruise in Mission Impossible, the payment gateway test double is of course like the stunt double.

Stub explanation

The best explanation of mocks and stubs I’ve been able to find online is this post by a guy named Michal Lipski.

I took his explanation, mixed it in my brain with other stuff I’ve read, and came up with this explanation:

A Test Stub is a fake object that’s used in place of a real object for the purpose of getting the program to behave the way we need it to in order to test it. A big part of a Test Stub’s job is to return pre-specified hard-coded values in response to method calls.

You can visit the xUnit Patterns Test Stub page for a more detailed and precise explanation. My explanation might not be 100% on the mark. I’m going for clarity over complete precision.

When would you want to use a test stub? We’ll see in my example code shortly.

Mock explanation

A Mock Object is a fake object that’s used in place of a real object for the purpose of listening to the methods called on the mock object. The main job of a Mock Object is to ensure that the right methods get called on it.

Again, for a more precise (but harder to understand) explanation, you can check out the xUnit Patterns Mock Object page.

We’ll also see a mock object use case in my example code.

The difference between mocks and stubs

As I understand it, and to paint with a very broad brush, Test Stubs help with inputs and Mock Objects help with outputs. A Test Stub is a fake thing you stick in there to trick your program into working properly under test. A Mock Object is a fake thing you stick in there to spy on your program in the cases where you’re not able to test something directly.

Again, I’m going for conciseness and clarity over 100% accuracy here. Now let’s take a look at a concrete example.

Example application code

Below is an example Ruby program I wrote. I tried to write it to meet the following conditions:

  • It’s as small and simple as possible
  • It would actually benefit from the use of one mock and one stub

My program involves three classes:

  • Payment: meant to simulate an ActiveRecord model
  • PaymentGateway: simulates a third-party payment gateway (e.g. Stripe)
  • Logger: logs payments

The code snippet below includes the program’s three classes as well as a single test case for the Payment class.

Our test has two problems.

One is that it hits the real production API and alters production data. (My code doesn’t really do this; you can pretend that my puts statement hits a real payment gateway and charges somebody’s credit card.)

The other problem is that the test doesn’t verify that the payment gets logged. We could comment out the @logger.record_payment(response[:payment_id]) line and the test would still pass.

This is what we see when we run the test:

Let’s first address the problem of altering production data. We can do this by replacing PaymentGateway with a special kind of test double, a stub.

Stub example

Below I’ve replaced payment_gateway = with payment_gateway = double(). I’m also telling my new Test Double object (that is, my Test Stub) that it should expect to receive a charge method call, and when it does, return a payment id of 1234.

If we run this test now, we can see that we no longer get the jarring “THIS HITS THE PRODUCTION API” message. This is because our test no longer calls the charge method on an instance of PaymentGateway, it calls the charge method on a test double.

Our payment_gateway variable is no longer actually an instance of PaymentGateway, it’s an instance of RSpec::Mocks::Double.

That takes care of the hitting-production problem. What about verifying the logging of the payment? This is a job for a different kind of test double, a mock object (or just mock).

Mock example

Now let’s replace with logger = double(). Notice how RSpec doesn’t make a distinction between mocks and stubs. They’re all just Test Doubles. If we want to use a Test Double as a mock or as a stub, RSpec leaves that up to us and doesn’t care.

We’re also telling our new Mock Object that it needs (not just can, but has to, and it will raise an exception if not) receive a record_payment method call with the value 1234.

Now that we have the line that says expect(logger).to receive(:record_payment).with(1234), our test is asserting that the payment gets logged. We can verify this by commenting out the @logger.record_payment(response[:payment_id]) and running our test again. We get the following error:

Why I don’t often use mocks or stubs in Rails

Having said all this, I personally hardly ever use mocks or stubs in Rails. I can count on one hand all the times I’ve used mocks or stubs over my eight years so far of doing Rails.

The main reason is that I just don’t often have the problems that test doubles solve. In Rails we don’t really do true unit tests. For better or worse, I’ve never encountered a Rails developer, myself included, who truly wants to test an object completely in isolation from all other objects. Instead we write model tests that hit the database and have full access to every single other object in the application. Whether this is good or bad can be debated but one thing seems clear to me: this style of testing eliminates the need for test doubles the vast majority of the time.

Another reason is that I find that tests written using test doubles are often basically just a restatement of the implementation of whatever’s being tested. The code says @logger.record_payment and the test says expect(logger).to receive(:record_payment). Okay, what did we really accomplish? We’re not testing the result, we’re testing the implementation. That’s probably better than nothing but if possible I’d rather just test the result, and quite often there’s nothing stopping me from testing the result instead of the implementation.

Lastly, I personally haven’t found myself working on a lot of projects that use some external resource like a payment gateway API that would make test doubles useful. If I were to work on such a project I imagine I certainly would make use of test doubles, I just haven’t worked on that type of project very much.

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8 thoughts on “RSpec mocks and stubs in plain English

  1. Chuck Lauer Vose

    I strongly disagree with the last couple paragraphs, but the top section is extremely valuable. I’m very surprised that you don’t need mocks. What do you use instead? Or do you not talk to other services at all?

  2. Mike M

    I find myself using stubs often, but for two main reasons – that maybe you/others don’t run into:

    1) Interactions with 3rd party services. I want to be able to test that I’m calling Stripe/Cloudinary/S3/etc. correctly and if I Call Stripe.payment, I get a (fake) payment record in return, that’s subsequently processed correctly.


    2) When I need to call an expensive process internally. If I have a big Contract.finalize! method that calculates stuff, saves off a pdf invoice, emails the user, etc etc… I don’t want to run all that mess with every test that might call finalize!. When I’m testing methods that call finalize!, I mock finalize, return the appropriate data, and leave all that expensive processing for another test. (I do of course have other tests that actually test what finalize! does).

    So maybe for small projects, stubs aren’t as important… but for some – they are nearly critical!

    Great article!

  3. aroeczek

    Nice article thanks you so much. I don’t disagree with the last one paragraphs to not use too often mocks and stubs. What about the performance of your tests if you invoking each time real implementation of used classes/services which are utilized by tested class?

  4. Joshua Walton

    Excellent, clear explanation – it sorts out the cloudy areas of difference in usage. The input/output difference was a perfect nuance for clearing it up in my head.

  5. Ron HD

    I don’t see the point of the stub/mock distinction. xUnits goes even further, giving 5+ different classifications. In reality, these end up overlapping. No justification is given for the distinctions. No benefits for the more complex terminology are provided. They’re really just a list of the different features that mocks/stubs/test doubles can provide, which can be mixed and matched as needed.


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